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A Bibliography on Local Government in
British Columbia - Continued


Single Industry Towns

There is a fair-sized body of literature about single industry towns in Canada generally and in British Columbia in particular. First Kitimat, then the "instant towns", and now Tumbler Ridge have each in their day attracted attention. Many issues have been studied and the resulting literature is diverse. Themes in the literature include: the political influence of the dominant company in a town; quality of life concerns including both problems of social isolation and how to provide a diverse range of services on a small tax base; the difficulty of trying to develop a sense of community in new towns where no one has roots; what to do about high turnover in the labour force; the vulnerability of towns dependent on one industry and the need for economic diversification; and the special problems of women where there are few available jobs not of the traditionally male variety, and where the jobs that are available (mainly in the service sector) are frequently low-paying.

In B.C. the literature largely consists of sociological, economic and planning literature; there is a definite lack of political science studies of politics and administrative concerns in single industry towns.

A. General Canadian Works

Bowles, Roy T., ed. Little Communities and Big Industries: Studies in the Social Impact of Canadian Resource Extraction. Toronto: Butterworths, 1982.

Bowles, Roy T., with the collaboration of Joanne Cook. Social Impact Assessment in Small Communities: An Integrative Review of Selected Literature. Toronto: Butterworths, 1981.

Canada. Department of Regional Economic Expansion. Single-Industry Communities. Occasional Papers. 1977.

Canada. Department of Regional Economic Expansion. Single-Sector Communities. Ottawa, 1979.

Canada's Single Industry Communities: A Proud Determination to Survive. A Report Presented to the Minister of Employment and Immigration by the Canada Employment and Immigration Council. Ottawa: The Council, 1987. Useful overview of problems and prospects; see especially the pages on Trail, Tumbler Ridge, Sooke, Chemainus, and Tahsis.

Canadian Council on Rural Development. The Relationship of Canada's Forests to Rural Employment and Community Stability. Ottawa: The Council, 1978.

Himelfarb, Alex. The Social Characteristics of One-Industry Towns in Canada: A Background Report. (Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Study no. 30). Ottawa: Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, 1976.

Lucas, Rex A. Minetown, Milltown, Railtown: Life in Canadian Communities of Single Industry. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971.

Marchak, Patricia. "Small Can be Ugly." First Reading 6 (Sept.- Oct. 1987): 9-11. (First Reading is a publication of the Edmonton Social Planning Council.)

Plan Canada. Special issue on "Canadian Resource Towns: Their History and Development." 18 (March 1978).

Pressman, Norman E. P. and Kathleen Lauder. "Resource Towns as New Towns." Urban History Review 7 (no. 1-78): 78-95. Some B.C. references, but not the main focus of the article.

Queen's University (Kingston, Ont.). The Institute of Local Government. Single Enterprise Communities in Canada. A Report to Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Kingston, Ont.: The Institute, 1953.

Riffel, J. A. Quality of Life in Resource Towns. Ottawa: Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, 1975.

Robinson, Ira M. New Industrial Towns on Canada's Resource Frontier. Research Paper no. 73. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Includes some discussion of Kitimat.

Robinson, Ira M. "New Resource Towns on Canada's Frontier: Selected Contemporary Issues." In Resource Communities: A Decade of Disruption, ed. Don D. Detomasi and John W. Gartrell, 1-21. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1984.

Robinson, Ira M. "Planning, Building, and Managing New Towns on the Resource Frontier." In Urban and Regional Planning in a Federal State: The Canadian Experience, ed. William T. Perks and Ira M. Robinson, 54-75. Stroudsburg, Pa Downden, Hutchinson and Ross; Montreal: McGraw-Hill, 1979.

Skaburskis, Andrejs. "The Regional Development Implications of Settlement Plans: New Towns Versus Long Distance Commutes." Canadian Journal of Regional Science 10 (Summer 1987): 189-202. Includes some B.C. content.

Task Force on Mining Communities (Canada), 1982. Report of the Task Force on Mining Communities. Established by Federal, Provincial and Territorial Ministers with Responsibilities for Mining. September 1982.

B. Works about British Columbia

Bancroft, Clifford G. Mining Communities in British Columbia: A Social Infrastructure Analysis. British Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources and the University of Victoria, 1975.

Bradbury, J. H. "Class Structures and Class Conflicts in 'Instant' Resource Towns in British Columbia - 1965 to 1972." B.C. Studies, no. 37 (1978): 3-18.

Bradbury, John H. "The Instant Resource Towns Policy in British Columbia, 1965-1972." Plan Canada 20 (Mar. 1980): 19-38.

Bradbury, John H. "Instant Towns in British Columbia, 1965- 1972." Ph.D. thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1977.

Bradbury, J. H. "The Instant Towns of British Columbia: A Settlement Response to the Metropolitan Call on the Productive Base." In Vancouver: Western Metropolis, ed. L. J. Evenden, 117-33. Western Geographical Series, vol. 16. Victoria: Department of Geography, University of Victoria, 1978.

Bradbury, J. H. "New Settlements Policy in British Columbia." Urban History Review 8 (Oct. 1979): 47-76.

British Columbia. Ministry of Environment. Impacts of the Revelstoke Dam on Local Government Services and Finances. Vol. 1, Compensation/Mitigation Criteria for Assessing Impacts, by Andrejs Skaburskis; vol. 2, Revelstoke Roads, Water, Storm Sewer and Sanitary Sewer, Kerr Wood Leidel Associates Ltd.; vol. 3, Impacts and Compensation, Sussex Consultants, Ltd. Victoria, 1984-85.

British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Conceptual Plan: Tumbler Ridge, Northeast Sector, B.C., Update. Prepared by R. A. Rabnett and Associates, with sub-consultants, Sussex Consultants, Ltd., et. al. Victoria, 1981.

British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Resource Community Planning: Economic Implications for Resource Developers of Settlement Options. Prepared by Andrejs Skaburskis, Vischer Skaburskis Planners. April, 1980.

British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Resource Community Planning: Framework for Choosing Settlement Options. Prepared by R. A. Rabnett, R. A. Rabnett and Associates, with Gary Paget, Ministry of Municipal Affairs, Suzanne Veit and Associates, Vischer Skaburskis Planners, and Sussex Consultants Ltd. May, 1979.

British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Policy and Research Branch. Settlement Options: A Framework for Decisions. Task Force on North West Economic Development Opportunities; prepared by the Municipal Group and Policy and Research Branch, Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Victoria: Queen's Printer, 1983.

British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Alternative Methods of Financing and Developing Resource-Based Communities. Prepared by Richard A. Rabnett and Andrejs Skaburskis of Thompson, Berwick, Pratt and Partners. January, 1977.

British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Problems and Responses: Resource Community Development. Proceedings from: Workshop on Ministry Response to Resource Development, July 5th, 6th, and 7th, 1978. Victoria, B.C. Prepared by R A. Rabnett and Associates, and Research and Planning Services, Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Victoria, 1978.

British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. Tumbler Ridge, Northeast Sector, B.C. Submitted to the Ministry by Thompson, Berwick, Pratt and Partners. Victoria, 1978. 5 vols.

Budgen, Mark. "Tumbler Ridge: Planning the Physical and Social Development of a New Community." Habitat 26, no. 1 (1983): 8-12.

Langin, Susan Esther. "Resource Development and New Towns: A Women's Perspective." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1981.

Marchak, Patricia. "Forestry Towns and the Industry in British Columbia." In Community and Forestry: Continuities and Natural Resources Sociology, ed. Robert G. Lee, Donald R. Field, and William R. Burch. Forthcoming.

Marchak, M. Patricia. Green Gold: The Forestry Industry in British Columbia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1983. Part 3 includes a review of literature about single industry towns in B.C.

Martin, Ted. "Building and Planning for Community Energy Conservation: Lessons from Tumbler Ridge." Habitat 27, no. 3 (1984): 20-23.

McGrath, Susan. "Local Governance: An Assessment of the Planning and Development of Tumbler Ridge, British Columbia.'' M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985.

McGrath, Susan. "Tumbler Ridge: An Assessment of the Local Government Method of Resource Community Development." Impact Assessment Bulletin 4, no. 1-2 (1986): 211-36

Miller, Philip Carl. "A British Columbia Fishing Village." Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, 1978. About the village of Sointula .

Moore, John Phillip. "Residents' Perceptions of Quality of Life in Vanderhoof and Mackenzie, Two Northern British Columbia Resource Communities." M.B.A. thesis, Simon Fraser University, 1976.

Northern British Columbia Women's Task Force Report on Single Industry Resource Communities. Kitimat, B.C., Fraser Lake, B.C., Mackenzie, B.C., 1977. Vancouver: Women's Research Centre, 1977.

Oberlander, H. Peter and Arthur L. Fallick, eds. "Planning for an Intermediate Settlement: The Case of Tumbler Ridge, British Columbia." In Intermediate Settlements: Planning and Management Within a Spatial Strategy. Vancouver: Centre for Human Settlements, University of Brifish Columbia, 1985. Note: look this book up under title.

Paget, Gary and Brian Walisser. "The Development Mining Communities in British Columbia: Resilience Through Local Governance." In Mining Communities: Hard Lessons for the Future, 96-150. (Proceedings of the Twelfth CRS Policy Discussion Seminar, Kingston, Ontario, September 27-29, 1983.) Kingston: Centre for Resource Studies, Queen's University, 1984.

Paget, Gary and R. A. Rabnett. The Need for Changing Models of Planning: Developing Resource Based Communities. U.B.C. Planning Papers, Canadian Planning Issues, no. 6. Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, 1983.

Paget, Gary and Richard Rabnett. "Socially Responsive Community Planning: Applied SIA." In Social Impact Assessment: Theory, Method and Practice, a Collection of Original Papers from the First Canadian Symposium on Social Impact Assessment, ed. Frank J. Tester and William Mykes, 149-67. Calgary: Detselig Enterprises, 1981.

Pinfield, Lawrence T. and Lois D. Etherington. "Housing Strategies of Resource Firms in Western Canada." Canadian Public Policy 11 (March 1985): 93-106.

Pinkerton, Evelyn. "The Fishing-Dependent Community." In Uncommon Property: The Fishing and Fish-Processing Industries in British Columbia, ed. Patricia Marchak, Neil Guppy, and John McMullan, 293-325. Toronto: Methuen, 1987.

Porteous, J. D. "Gold River: An Instant Town in British Columbia." Geography 55 (July 1970): 317-22.

Porteous, J. Douglas. "Quality of Life in British Columbia Company Towns: Residents' Attitudes." In New Communities in Canada: Exploring Planned Environments, ed. Norman E. P. Pressman, 332-46. Waterloo, Ont.: Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, 1976. A special issue of CONTACT.

Porteous, J. Douglas. "Single Enterprise Communities." In British Columbia: Its Resources and People, ed. Charles N. Forward, 383-99. Western Geographical Series, vol. 22. Victoria: Department of Geography, University of Victoria, 1987.

Roberts, Richard and Judy Fisher. "Canadian Resource Communities: The Residents' Perspective in the 1980s." In Mining Communities: Hard Lessons for the Future, 151-70. (Proceedings of the Twelfth CRS Policy Discussion Seminar, Kingston, Ontario, September 27-29, 1983.) Kingston: Centre for Resource Studies, Queen's University, 1984. Includes discussion of Sparwood, Elkford, and Kitimat, B.C.

Taylor, Ross Eric. ''A Community Impact Study of Coal Development in Northeast British Columbia." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1978. Discusses Chetwynd, and also Dawson Creek and Hudson's Hope.

Trade Union Research Bureau, Vancouver, B.C. The Mackenzie Story: A Study in the History and Development of a Forest Industry and Town at Mackenzie, British Columbia. Prepared by the Trade Union Research Bureau. Mackenzie, B.C.: Citizens Committee of Mackenzie, B.C., 1974.

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