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A Bibliography on Local Government in
British Columbia - Continued
Social Services, Social Planning And
Social Issues At The Local Level
The stereotypical image of local government is that it deals with
administration of "hard" services, namely water, sewers,
roads, and garbage collection. Social issues which arise at the
local level do not receive much attention in the political science
and public administration literature on local government. The one
exception to this are the social consequences of urban development,
which are a major concern in the literature.
The lack of detailed attention to social concerns is somewhat
puzzling, given that it is often social issues which mobilize voters
and interest groups. Moreover there is obvious room to study such
questions as the impact of "hot issues" on voter turnout,
the extent to which "single issue" voting occurs at the
local level, when and if protest groups turn into civic parties, and
the subsequent political careers of people who first come to public
notice through their involvement in attempts to deal with local
It is sometimes said that local government consists mainly of the
administration of hard services, while it is the provincial and
federal levels of government which deal with the major social
issues. Some advance this as the reason for the lack of attention to
social issues in the local government literature. There is some
truth to that assertion but, on the other hand, the following is a
list of concerns which municipal governments may be called on to
respond to: lack of low rent housing; race relations; demands for
anti-smoking by-laws; difficulties with "street kids";
objections to pornography displayed in corner stores; the need for
day-care facilities, possibly linked to arguments to change zoning
bylaws to allow for more daycare in private homes; and controversies
over the location of transition houses for battered women, halfway
houses for parolees, shelters for runaways, and transition houses
for former mental patients. Too, there may be calls for funding of
the above facilities. Other issues include animal control, herbicide
and pesticide spraying, and calls for cities to declare themselves
"nuclear weapons-free zones." In addition, local
governments are sometimes pressured to set an example as model
employers by, for instance, instituting "equal pay for work of
equal value." While the literature about many of the above
issues is plentiful, the point to be made here is that there is not
a great deal of academic literature which relates such issues to
A. Social Services
Clague, Michael. "The Britannia Community
Services Centre." In Community Work in Canada, ed., Brian
Wharf, 51-86. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1979.
Clague, Michael, Robert Dill, Roop
Seebaran, and Brian Wharf. Reforming
Human Services: The Experience of the Community Resource Boards in
B.C. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1984. For
historical background on local government involvement with social
services, see Part 1, "Social Welfare in British Columbia,
Gandy, John and Roger Delaney.
"Planning for the Delivery of Social Services at the Local
Level." Plan Canada 17 (June 1977): 108-17.
Manga, Pran and Wendy Muckle. The
Role of Local Government in the Provision of Health and Social
Services in Canada. Ottawa: The Canadian Council on Social
Stone, Douglas T. "White Rock, British
Columbia. A Community Programmed for Seniors." Recreation
Canada 43 (July 1985): 35-37.
Wharf, Brian. "Municipal Government and
Social Services." In Urban Political Issues: A Reader,
ed. Richard Loreto and Trevor Price.
Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. Forthcoming 1989.
Audain, Michael J. Mobile Homes: Problems
and Prospects. The Report of an Inquiry Conducted for the
Government of Province of British Columbia. Victoria: Queen's
British Columbia. Joint Committee on Housing. Report
of the Chairman to the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing.
Victoria, 1976. Chairman: Sam Bawlf.
Cogan, Susana and Debra Darke. Canadian
Social Housing Managed by Provincial and Territorial Housing
Corporations: Comparative Characteristics. Vancouver: British
Columbia Housing Management Commission, 1983.
Commission of Inquiry into Social Housing for British
Columbia. An Inquiry into Social Housing for British
Columbia: Common Ground in Meeting Core Need: Final Report.
Vancouver, B.C.: The Commission, 1986. Chairman. James C.
Commission of Inquiry into Social Housing for British
Columbia. An Inquiry into Social Housing in British
Columbia: The Search for Common Ground: Preliminary Report.
Victoria, B.C.: The Commission, 1986. Chairman. James C.
Donegani, C. Laura. Local Government and the
Housing Needs of Older Urban Canadians: The Vancouver, B.C. Case.
Vancouver: School of Community and Regional Planning, University of
British Columbia, 1987. (UBC Planning Papers, Canadian Planning
Issues, no. 23.)
Goldberg, Michael A. The Housing Problem, a
Real Crisis? A Primer on Housing Markets, Policies and Problems.
Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press,1983.
Grieve, Beverly Jean. "Continuity and
Change: Provincial Housing Policy in British Columbia,
1945-1985." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985.
Heung, Raymond. The Do's and Don'ts of
Housing Policy: The Case of British Columbia. Vancouver: Fraser
Housing: It's Your Move. A Report Prepared by a
Study Team in the Urban Land Economics Division, Faculty of Commerce
and Business Administration, University of British Columbia. Vol. 1,
Final Report; vol. 2, Technical Report. 1976.
Hulchanski, J. David, ed. Managing Land for
Housing: the Experience of Housing Cooperatives in British
Columbia. Vancouver: Centre for Human Settlements, University
of British Columbia, 1983.
Melliship, Kaye Staniforth. "The
Contribution of Theories of the State in Analysing Local Government
Housing Initiatives: The City of Vancouver's Housing Actions,
1900-1973." M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985.
Pinfield, Lawrence T. and Lois D.
Etherington. "Housing Strategies of Resource Firms in
Western Canada." Canadian Public Policy 11 (March
Rose, Albert. Canadian Housing Policies,
1935-1980. Toronto: Butterworths, 1980.
Sigston, Donald. "Third Sector Housing in
the Vancouver Region." In Current Issues in Canadian Human
Geography: The Lethbridge Papers, ed. Nigel M. Waters,
31 - 42. B.C. Geographical Series, no. 36. Vancouver: Tantalus
Research Ltd., 1983.
Skaburskis, Andrejs. "Speculation and
Housing Prices: A Study of Vancouver's Boom-Bust Cycle." Urban
Affairs Quarterly 23 (June 1988): 556-80.
C. Social Planning
Cooley, Nancy J. "The Britannia Community
Services Centre: A Lesson in Participatory Planning and
Design." In Urban and Regional Planning in a Federal State:
The Canadian Experience, ed. William T. Perks
and Ira M. Robinson, 330-43. Stroudsberg, Pa.:
Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross; Montreal: McGraw-Hill, 1979.
Egan, Maurice. "Social Planning in
Vancouver." Plan Canada 17 (June
"Local Government and Social Planning."
Series of short articles, pages 2-6 of SPARC News / Community
Affairs in British Columbia, Dec. 1986. (This is a quarterly
publication of the Social Planning and Research Council of British
McNiven, Christiane. "The Vancouver Social
Planning Department." In Community Work in Canada, ed.
Brian Wharf, 197-224. Toronto: McClelland and
Nedeljkovic, Maryvonne. "Town Planning and
Social Integration in Vancouver, British Columbia." Etudes
canadiennes/Canadian Studies 19 (1985): 247-56.
D. Social Issues
British Columbia. Ministry of Tourism, Recreation and
Culture. Stewardship and Opportunity. (Report of
the Project Pride Ministerial Task Force on Heritage Conservation.)
Chairperson: Kim Campbell. Victoria, 1987.
Cybriwsky, R., David Ley and
J. Western. "The Political and Social Construction of
Revitalized Neighbourhoods: Society Hill, Philadelphia, and False
Creek, Vancouver." In Gentrification of the City, ed. Neil
Smith and Peter Williams, 92-120. Boston:
Allen and Unwin, 1986.
Hodge, Gerald, with the assistance of
John B. Collins. The Elderly in Canada's Small Towns:
Recent Trends and Their Implications, Occasional Papers, no.
43. Vancouver: Centre for Human Settlements, University of British
Lam, Edmond D. "Why Race Relations in
Municipalities? The Challenge and the Opportunity."
Municipal World 98 (June 1988): 143-48.
Ley, David. "A Ten Year Overview." City
Magazine 9 (Winter 1986): 12-19. About gentrification in
Ley, David. "Social Upgrading in Six
Canadian Inner Cities." Canadian Geographer 32 (Spring
1988): 31-45. Includes Vancouver.
Lowman J. "Prostitution in Vancouver: Some
Notes on the Genesis of a Social Problem." Canadian Journal
of Criminology 28 (Jan. 1986): 1-16.
Mills, Caroline. "Lifestyles and Landscape
on the Fairview Slopes." City Magazine
9 (Winter 1986): 20-24.
Oberlander, H. Peter and Arthur L.
Fallick. Shelter or Homes? A Contribution to the Search
for Solutions to Homelessness in Canada. Vancouver: Centre for
Human Settlements, University of British Columbia, 1987.
Payne-O'Connor, Josephine. Sharing Power:
Women in Politics: Vancouver Island Profiles. Victoria: Kachina
Press, 1986. Of general interest but see especially the list of
"Issues for Mayors" on page 132.
Please send any comments or questions to Nicola.Marotz@gov.bc.ca
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