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A Bibliography on Local Government in
British Columbia - Continued
Local Economic Development
Economic development is a broad subject. At one level, it might be
argued that anything to do with the national economy ultimately
affects the well-being of every town and rural area in the country.
The scope of this section of the bibliography is considerably more
modest. The focus is on basic characteristics of the B.C. economy
which have a direct impact on municipalities, on related issues of
regional development, and on the literature about what local
governments can do to promote economic development in their areas.
The general economic literature about B.C. stresses that the
province is largely dependent on the export of a small range of
primary goods. The dependence on exports means that the state of the
economy is largely outside provincial control. How much lumber the
province sells to the U.S., for example, partly depends on the
American building industry's demands for lumber, partly on the
tariff policies of the U.S. and Canadian governments, and partly on
the value of the Canadian dollar. Dependence on a small number of
products is significant because it means that a downturn in demand
for any one of them has a major impact on the B.C. economy. Calls
for provincial economic development, therefore, frequently emphasize
the need for a more diverse economy with more secondary industries.
Although there is not a great deal of literature on the subject,
the sharp upswings and downswings in the provincial economy have an
obvious impact on the financial status, and financial stability, of
communities in B.C. Leaving aside the overall state of the economy,
the question becomes: "What can municipalities do to further
their economic development?" This is a question that has
received increasing attention in recent years, although more so in
"how to do it" type of publications than in academic local
government literature. Government efforts may include special
efforts to streamline bureaucratic red tape; helping to publicize
the development potential of an area; providing a good
infrastructure; or "Special Enterprise Zones." Another
approach -- which relies on entrepreneurs rather than government --
is the idea of "import replacement." The basic concept is
to substitute locally produced goods and services for those from
outside the area, thus diversifying and stabilizing the local
economy and creating multiplier effects. Note that
"import" in this context does not necessarily mean
"from a foreign country." This strategy may be accompanied
by "buy local" publicity campaigns. In addition, advice
and guidance for small businesses may be provided through local
organizations which are often funded, in part, by municipalities.
Finally, community economic development (or "CED") is
gaining in popularity. Sometimes, the term "CED" is used
for any form of local economic development, but it also has a
narrower meaning. In the latter sense, CED involves the creation of
small-scale, often labour intensive rather than capital intensive,
businesses and services, often run on a co-operative basis. The
object is to provide useful goods and services and to provide
employment, on the one hand, while earning just enough money to
cover costs on the other hand. CED is one means of diversifying
economies and providing goods and services which fall between the
nooks and crannies of established businesses. CED can take place in
large cities, but the economic difficulties of single-industry towns
in hard times often serves as a particular stimulus to it. One
common element in the strategies mentioned here is attention to
small businesses as a vehicle for the creation of jobs. This has
been the case since various economic surveys began to show that
small businesses generate a higher proportion of new jobs than do
In closing, it should be pointed out that not all commentators
are optimistic about the efficacy of municipal governments in
stimulating local economic development. Given the limitations on
permissible local government activities, plus the limited funds
available to local government, and the extent to which economic
decisions rest on factors beyond local government control, they are
not necessarily in a position to provide a great deal of aid. The
question also arises as to whether the overall number of jobs rises
as a result of municipal government economic stimulation or whether
unemployment is simply transferred from one place to another.
Relatively few of the sources listed below discuss local
government per se, but they do raise issues which local
governments need to be aware of. The citations below illustrate the
diversity of themes and types of writing that exist on topics
related to local economic development. This section should not be regarded
as a comprehensive bibliography of writings relevant to
economic development in B.C.
A. General Overviews
Bryant, Christopher R. "The Entrepreneur,
Local Economic Development and the Economic Development
Officer." Entrepreneurship Development Review (Summer
Coffey, William J. and Mario Polese.
"Local Development. Conceptual Bases and Policy
Implications." Regional Studies 19 (April 1985):
Dorsey, Candas Jane and Ellen Ticoll.
The Nuts and Bolts of Community Based Economic Development.
Selected Papers and Proceedings from a Conference held in Edmonton,
Alberta, November 19-20, 1982. Edmonton: Edmonton Social Planning
Hastings, John. "The Municipal Economic
Development Program at the Federation of Canadian
Municipalities." Entrepreneurship Development Review,
no. 3 (Summer 1987): 10-11.
Kitchen, Harry M. The Role for Local
Governments in Economic Development. Toronto: Ontario Economic
Marchak, Patricia. "The Staples Trap."
Chapter 13 in Fish vs. Oil: Resources and Rural Development in
North Atlantic Societies, ed. J.D. House,
178-86. St. John's, Newfoundland: Institute of Social and Economic
Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1986. Includes a
general discussion of dependency issues.
Newman, Lynda H., Deborah M. Lyon
and Warren B. Philp. Community Economic
Development: An Approach for Urban-Based Economies. Report no.
16. Winnipeg: Institute of Urban Studies, University of Winnipeg,
1986. Very useful overview.
Norcliffe, Glen. "Industrial Specialization
versus Industrial Diversification: An Assessment of Policy
Alternatives." In Regional Diversification and Structural
Change. Proceedings of the Canada-United Kingdom Symposium on
Industrial Geography held at the University of Calgary, Canada, in
August 1983, ed. Brenton M. Barr and Nigel
M. Waters, 7-24. B.C. Geographical Series, no. 39.
Vancouver: Tantalus Research Ltd., 1984.
Ross, David P. and Peter J. Usher.
From the Roots Up: Economic Development As If Community Mattered.
Ottawa: Canadian Council on Social Development, 1986.
Stankovic, Dan. "An Entrepreneurial
Approach to Local Economic Development," Plan Canada
27 (Mar. 87): 6-15. A useful overview of the role of small
businesses in local economic development, and what local governments
can do to encourage such development.
Wismer, Susan and David Pell. Community
Profit: Community-Based Economic Development in Canada.
Toronto: Is Five Press, 1981.
B. Works about B.C.
Allen, Robert C. "The B.C. Economy: Past,
Present, Future." In Restraining the Economy: Social Credit
Economic Policies for B.C. in the Eighties, ed. Robert
C. Allen and Gideon Rosenbluth, 9-42.
Vancouver: New Star Books for the B.C. Economic Policy Institute,
Barr, Brenton M. and Kenneth J. Fairburn.
"Growth Poles and Growth Centres: The Impact of the Kraft Pulp
Industry on the Location of Growth in British Columbia." In Malaspina
Papers: Studies in the Human and Physical Geography, ed. Roger
Leigh, 67-77. British Columbia Geographical Series, no. 17.
Occasional Papers in Geography. Vancouver: Tantalus Research Ltd.,
Baxter, David. Dimensions of the Greater
Vancouver Economy, 1986 to 1996. A Report Prepared for
Development Services, Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby,
Bradbury, John. "British Columbia:
Metropolis and Hinterland in Microcosm." Chapter 10 of Heartland
and Hinterland: A Geography of Canada, 2nd edition, ed. L.
D. McCann. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice-Hall Canada, 1987.
An overview from an economic geography perspective.
British Columbia. Ministry of Economic Development.
British Columbia Regional Index. Victoria, 1986.
British Columbia. Ministry of Industry and Small Business
Development. Operations Manual for Economic Development
Committees. Victoria, 1985. Title on spine: B.C. Community
Economic Development Manual.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs.
Economic Development Strategy Manual. Victoria, 1986. At
head of title: Partners in Enterprise.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Policy
and Research Branch. An Evaluation of British
Columbia's Downtown Revitalization Programme, February 1987.
Prepared by Policy and Research Branch for the Downtown
Revitalization Programme. Victoria, 1987.
Clague, Michael. Status Report IV: Community
Economic Development in British Columbia. Discussion Paper.
Vancouver: Social Planning and Research Council of British Columbia,
Davis, H. Craig. "Income and Employment
Multipliers for a Small B.C. Coastal Region." Canadian
Journal of Regional Science 3 (Autumn 1980): 227-35. About the
Davis, H. Craig. "Income and Employment
Multipliers for Seven British Columbia Regions."
Canadian Journal of Regional Science 9 (Spring 1986):
Davis, H. Craig and Lauren E. Davis.
"The Local Exchange Trading System: Community
Wealth Creation Within the Informal Economy." Plan Canada
27 (Dec. 1987): 238-45. Describes L.E.T.S. operations in several
Donaldson, David and Jacqueline K. Maund.
"Does B.C. Need Special Enterprise Zones?" In Restraining
the Economy: Social Credit Economic Policies for B.C. in the
Eighties, ed. Robert C. Allen and
Gideon Rosenbluth, 297-315. Vancouver: New Star Books for
the B.C. Economic Policy Institute, 1986.
Forward, Charles N., ed. British Columbia:
Its Resources and People. Western Geographical Series, vol. 22.
Victoria: Department of Geography, University of Victoria, 1987. A
number of essays discuss aspects of the B.C. economy.
Forward, Charles N. "The Development of
Canada's Five Leading National Ports." Urban History Review
10 (Feb. 1982): 25-45. Includes Vancouver.
Forward, Charles N. "The Development of
Victoria as a Retirement Centre." Urban History Review
13 (Oct, 1984): 117-20.
Forward, Charles N. "Relationships Between
Elderly Population and Income Sources in the Urban Economic Bases of
Victoria and Vancouver." B.C. Studies no. 36
Gidney, Norman. "From Coal to Forest
Products: The Changing Resource Base of Nanaimo, B.C." Urban
History Review 7 (no. 178): 18-47.
Grantham, Barbara. "Report on Government, A
View from B.C." Journal of Community Development 1
(July/August 1987): 78-79.
Holdsworth, Deryck, ed. Reviving Mainstreet.
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985. See especially
"Store-fronts for Downtown" by Hans Honegger
and Robert Inwood, pages 117-51, for a discussion
of Nelson, B.C., but other articles include some B.C. references as
Hutton, Thomas. Vancouver: An Analysis of
Economic Structure, Growth and Change. Vancouver: Economic
Development Office, June 1985.
Inwood, Robert. "Restoring the Central City
Core - Nelson's Main Street Project." Heritage West 6
(Summer 1982): 18-23.
Leach, Joy and Jay S. Stewart.
"The Economic Impact of Museums on Their Communities. " Museum
Round Up no. 91 (1984): 14-17.
Ley, David. "Inner City Revitalization in
Canada: A Vancouver Case Study." The Canadian Geographer
15 (Summer 1981): 124-48.
Ley, David and Thomas Hutton.
"Vancouver's Corporate Complex and Producer Services Sector:
Linkages and Divergence Within a Provincial Staples Economy." Regional
Studies 21 (Oct. 1987): 413-24.
Lines, Kenneth. "A Bit of Old England: The
Selling of Tourist Victoria." M.A. thesis, University of
Marchak, M. Patricia. Green Gold: The
Forestry Industry in British Columbia. Vancouver: University of
British Columbia Press, 1983. Includes a discussion of the problems
of single industry towns and what could be done to improve their
Maroc, Don. "Participatory Heritage
Attracts Tourists." Journal of Community Development 1
(Nov. - Dec. 1987): 16-21. About Chemainus.
Ross, John Hamilton. "Urban Vacation
Hinterlands: Four British Columbia Cities as Examples." M.A.
thesis, University of Victoria, 1969.
Shearer, Ronald A. "The Economy of British
Columbia." In Trade Liberalization and a Regional Economy:
Studies of the Impact of Free Trade on British Columbia. By Ronald
A. Shearer, John H. Young and
Gordon R. Munro, 3-42. Toronto: University of Toronto
Social Planning and Review Council of B.C. Bridging
Social and Economic Planning: An Exploration of Community Economic
Development Activities in British Columbia. Vancouver: SPARC,
Steed, Guy P. F. "Intrametropolitan
Manufacturing: Spatial Distribution and Locational Dynamics in
Greater Vancouver." Canadian Geographer 17 (Fall
Strandberg, Coro T. Community Economic
Development in British Columbia: Nine Case Studies. Vancouver:
Social Planning and Review Council of British Columbia, January
Vancouver Economic Advisory Commission. An
Economic Strategy for Vancouver in the 1980s: Proposal for Policy
Implementation. Prepared for: City of Vancouver, April 1983.
Warriner, Keith. "Regionalism, Dependence,
and the B.C. Fisheries: Historical Development and Recent
Trends." In Uncommon Property: The Fishing and
Fish-Processing Industries in British Columbia, ed. Patricia
Marchak, Neil Guppy and John
McMullan, 325-49. Toronto: Methuen, 1987.
Warriner, G. Keith and L. Neil Guppy.
"From Urban Centre to Isolated Village: Regional Effects of
Limited Entry in the British Columbia Fishery." Journal of
Canadian Studies 19 (Spring 1984): 138-55.
Wikkamatileke, Rhordon. "Import
Replacement." Main Street: The Municipal and Regional
Development Magazine 2 (Jan. - Feb. 1988): 16-17. Discusses the
Better Buy Victoria program.
Wilkinson, Henry. "Atlin - Community
Profile. The Ghost Town that Refused to Die." North 24
(Jul. - Aug. 1977): 62-65.
Please send any comments or questions to Nicola.Marotz@gov.bc.ca
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