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A Bibliography on Local Government in
British Columbia - Continued
There is a large body of work about planning in Canada. Only a few of the
major themes are discussed below, and the focus is on political concerns.
Works about the history of planning note two main phases. First came the
"city beautiful" movement, where the emphasis was on aesthetics -- providing
monumental public buildings, broad avenues, and parks. This was followed by
the "city efficient" phase, where the emphasis was on such things as public
health, zoning, and traffic patterns.
Much of the modern literature centres on controversies over development, and it can include both physical (land use)
planning concerns and social planning concerns. Often controversies centre on large commercial or government
developments which pit the developers against people trying to save neighbourhoods. Equally important are problems of
city-wide needs versus neighbourhood wants. This is the so-called "not in my back yard" or "NIMBY" syndrome, which
can apply to anything from halfway houses for parolees to the location of an expressway. Facilities may be needed, but
often people do not want them near where they live.
Another theme in the modern literature is the need for public participation in planning decisions. This idea came to the fore
in the 1960s. Initially, it was often resisted by officials. Gradually, however, mechanisms of citizen input have become
institutionalized, and it is now widely conceded that paying attention to the views of the people immediately concerned
may result in more workable plans in the long run. On the other hand, it has also been claimed that increased consultation
means that things are less likely to get done, because almost any change will be opposed by someone.
Another theme is problems between levels of government, for instance where the federal or provincial governments own
land and want to develop it contrary to local wishes. However, in B.C. a greater problem is lack of coordination between
agencies of the same level of government -- especially the province, but also local governments, due to the lack of
coordinating mechanisms organized on a regional basis and a strong framework for regional planning.
Yet another issue might be called "planning for hard times." Planning, like any other government function, costs money,
and governments have been less willing to fund extensive planning studies in recent years when they were in the 1960s and
1970s. Meanwhile, the issues that planning was intended to deal with -- ensuring some predictability in land use and
ensuring a livable environment -- have not gone away. Part of the solution has been to shift attention from one-time grand
city plans to planning as an on-going process. Other concerns which arise include environmental issues, and concerns about
"fringe" development just outside city limits.
As in the previous section, B.C. and general Canadian references have been interfiled in the subcategories here in order to
avoid numerous categories with small numbers of references in them. For planning issues relating to single industry towns,
see section 12; for social planning, see section 11, Part C.
Please note that this section of the bibliography is primarily about planning as it relates to local government concerns. It
does not include technical planning literature or the vast body of planning studies about individual neighbourhoods, towns,
and regions; and it only includes a few of the more relevant theses. See the "Planning" section under "Sources for Further
Research" for details on finding more information.
A. General Canadian Works
Artibise, Alan F. J. and Gilbert A. Stelter, eds. The Usable Urban Past: Planning and Politics in the Modem Canadian
City. Toronto: Macmillan, 1979. (The Carleton Library, no. 119.) Useful for showing the influence of the past on
Bossons, J., with contributions by S. M. Makuch and D. Goyette. Reforming Planning in Ontario: Strengthening the
Municipal Role. Toronto: Ontario Economic Council, 1978. The approach used can be applied outside Ontario.
Cullingworth, J. Barry. Urban and Regional Planning in Canada. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1987.
Gunton, Thomas I. "The Evolution of Urban and Regional Planning in Canada: 1900-1960." Ph.D. dissertation,
University of British Columbia, 1981.
Hodge, Gerald. Planning Canadian Communities: An Introduction to the Principles, Practice and Participants. Toronto:
Hodge, Gerald and Mohammad A. Qadeer. Towns and Villages in Canada: The Importance of Being Unimportant.
Toronto: Butterworths, 1983.
Makuch, Stanley M. Canadian Municipal land Planning Law. Toronto: Carswell, 1983.
McGahan, Peter. Urban Sociology in Canada. 2nd ed. Chapter 11, "Power and Planning," 233-63. Toronto: Butterworths,
Perks, William T. and Ira M. Robinson, eds. Urban and Regional Planning in a Federal State: The Canadian
Experience. Stroudsberg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross; Montreal: McGraw-Hill, 1979.
Wellar, Barry S., ed. Prospects for Planning: Coming to Grips with New Realities. Proceedings of the 1982 National
Conference of the Canadian Institute of Planners, Hull, Que. Published by: The 1982 Conference Committee, Canadian
Institute of Planners. 1982.
B. History of Planning in B.C.
Bottomley, John. "Ideology, Planning and Landscape: The Business Community, Urban Reform and the Establishment of
Town Planning in Vancouver, British Columbia, 1900-1940." Ph.D. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1977.
Crerar, A. D. "Planning in the Lower Mainland Region of British Columbia." Canadian Geographer 1, no.4 (1954):
Oberlander, H. Peter. "The 'Patron Saint' of Town Planning in British Columbia." In Planning the Canadian
Environment, ed. L. O. Gertler, 36-41. Montreal: Harvest House, 1968. About Colonel Moody.
Robinson, Ira A. "Planning, Building and Managing New Towns on the Resource Frontier." In Perks and Robinson
(above), pages 54-75.
Todhunter, Rodger. "Vancouver and the City Beautiful Movement." Habitat 26, no. 3 (1983): 8-13. About the influence
the Bartholomew Plan has had on Vancouver.
Vancouver, B.C. Town Planning Commission. A Plan for the City of Vancouver, British Columbia; Including Point
Grey and South Vancouver and a General Plan of the Region, 1929. Prepared for the Commission by Harland
Bartholomew and Associates. Vancouver, B.C., 1928. An important document, now of historical interest. ("The
Weaver, John C. "The Property Industry and Land Use Controls: The Vancouver Experience, 1910-1945." Plan Canada
19 (Sep. - Dec. 1979): 211-25.
C. Land Use Planning
Bish, Robert L. Local Government in British Columbia. Chapter 10 Richmond B.C.: Union of British Columbia
Municipalities in cooperation with the University of Victoria School of Public Administration, 1987.
Bradbury, J. H. "The South Shore of Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, B.C. - A Land Use Conflict Over an Oil Refinery
Expansion." In New Themes in Western Canadian Geography: The Langara Papers. ed. Brenton M. Barr, 67-78. B.C.
Geographical Series, no. 22. Vancouver: Tantalus Research Ltd., 1976.
British Columbia. Development Process Committee. Development Process Committee Report. Vancouver, 1981.
Concerns all aspects of the process of developing real estate in British Columbia.
British Columbia. Ministry of Deregulation. Land Use Control: a Literature Review and Commentary. Cumberland
Planning Consultants, 1979.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Rural Residential Subdivisions in British Columbia. By Vischer
Skaburskis, Planners. Victoria, co-published by the Canadian Housing Design Council, 1981.
Corke, S. E. Land Use Controls in British Columbia: A Contribution to a Comparative Study of Canadian Planning
Systems. Land Policy Paper no. 3. Toronto: Centre for Urban And Community Studies, University of Toronto, 1983.
Crook, Christianna Stachelrodt. Environment and Land Use Policies and Practices of the Province of British Columbia.
Victoria: British Columbia Institute for Economic Policy Analysis. Oct. 1975. 4 vols.
Dale-Johnson, David. Greater Vancouver Regional District Land Use Regulation Study: An Evaluation of the Land Use
Approval Process in Coquitlam, Surrey and Vancouver, 1979. Working Paper 15. Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada,
Forward, Charles N. Waterfront Land Use in Metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia. Geographical Papers, no. 41.
Ottawa: Geographical Branch, 1968.
Fountain, G. F. "Zoning Administration in Vancouver." Plan Canada 2 (Nov. 1961): 115-24.
Furuseth, Owen J. and J. I. Pierce. "A Comprehensive Analysis of Farmland Preservation Programmes in North
America." Canadian Geographer 26 (Fall 1982): 191-206.
Murphy, Peter E. "Tourism Management Using Land Use Planning and Landscape Design: The Victoria Experience."
Canadian Geographer 24 (Spring 1980): 66-71.
Petter, Andrew. "Sausage Making In British Columbia's NDP Government: The Creation of the Land Commission Act,
August 1972 - April 1973." B.C. Studies, no. 65 (1985): 3-33.
Richard, Laura Lee. Implications of the Transfer of Development Potential of Vancouver. (Vancouver: Daon
Development Corp., 1981).
Robinson, Ira M. "Trends in Provincial Land Planning, Control, and Management." In Perks and Robinson (above,
section A), pages 204-27.
Taylor, W. A. Crown Lands: A History of Survey Systems. Victoria: Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing, reprinted
1981. (Originally published in 1975, under title Survey Systems Within the Crown Domain.)
Tunnicliffe, Kenneth W. "The Effect of Rezoning on Property Values in the City of Vancouver." Vancouver: Faculty of
Commerce and Business Administration, University of British Columbia, 1975.
Young, Gary Arthur. "The Municipal Subdivision Approval Process in Metropolitan Vancouver." M.Sc. thesis,
University of British Columbia, 1974.
D. Participation and Development Issues
Bordessa, Ronald and James M. Cameron. "Residential Developer Behaviour in the 1970s: Vancouver - Toronto
Contrasts." Atkinson Review of Canadian Studies 1 (Fall 1983): 29-33.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Policy and Research Branch. An Evaluation of British Columbia's
Downtown Revitalization Programme, February 1987. Prepared by Policy and Research Branch for the Downtown
Revitalization Programme. Victoria, 1987.
Burton, Thomas L. "A Review and Analysis of Canadian Case Studies in Public Participation." Plan Canada 19 (Mar.
Gaylor, H. J. "Private Residential Development in the Inner City - The West End of Vancouver." In The City: Canada's
Prospects, Canada's Problems, ed. Lloyd Axworthy and James M. Gillies, 199-210. Toronto: Butterworths, 1973.
Horsman, A. and R. Raynor. "Citizen Participation in Local Area Planning: Two Vancouver Cases." In Vancouver:
Western Metropolis, ed. L. J. Evenden, 239-53. Western Geographical series, vol. 16. Victoria: Dept, of Geography,
University of Victoria, 1978.
Hulchanski, David. St. Lawrence and False Creek: A Review of Planning and Development of Two New Inner City
Neighbourhoods. UBC Planning Papers: Canadian Planning Issues no. 10. Vancouver: School of Regional and Community
Planning, University of British Columbia, 1984.
The Impact of the Neighbourhood Improvement Program in British Columbia. (Study commissioned by the Canada
Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa,1981.)
Jensen, Jens Christian. "Urban Land Development, Political Process and the Local Area: Comparative Study of Kitsilano
and Grandview-Woodlands." M.Sc. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1974.
Kim, Hyung-chan and Nicholas Lai. "Chinese Community Resistance to Urban Renewal: The Case of Strathcona in
Vancouver, Canada." Journal of Ethnic Studies 10 (Summer 1982): 67-81.
Lash, Harry. Planning in a Human Way: Personal Reflections on the Regional Planning Experience in Greater
Vancouver. Urban Prospects Papers, no. 6. Ottawa: Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, 1976.
Ley, David, ed. Community Participation and the Spatial Order of the City. B.C. Geographical Series, no. 19. Vancouver:
Tantalus Research Ltd., 1974.
Ley, David. "Inner-City Revitalization in Canada: A Vancouver Case Study." Canadian Geographer 25 (Summer 1981):
Ley, David. "Styles of the Times: Liberal and Neoconservative Landscapes in Inner Vancouver, 1968-1986." Journal of
Historical Geography 13 (Jan. 1987): 40-56.
Ley, David and John Mercer. "Locational Conflict and the Politics of Consumption." Economic Geography 56 (April
1980): 89-109. Discusses land use issues in Vancouver, 1973-75.
Lum, Sophia. Residential Redevelopment in the Inner City of Vancouver: A Case Study of Fairview Slopes. M. Pl. thesis,
School of Urban and Regional Planning, Queen's University, 1984.
Lundgren, Robert. "The Remaking of Gastown." In The City: Canada's Prospects, Canada's Problems, ed. Lloyd
Axworthy and James M. Gillies, 211-14. Toronto: Butterworths, 1973.
McGahan, Peter. Urban Sociology in Canada, 2nd ed. Chapter 11, "Power and Planning," 233-63. Toronto: Butterworths,
Pendakur, V. Setty. Cities, Citizens, and Freeways: The Evolution of Public Policy on Freeways in Vancouver,
1952-1972. Vancouver, 1972.
Rodger, Ruth, contributors King Ganong, and others. Creating a Livable Inner City Community: Vancouver's
Experience. Vancouver: False Creek Development Group, 1976.
Smith, Patrick J. "Open Government: Recent Policy Options and Applications in Canada." Planning and Administration
11 (Autumn 1984): 54-62. Discusses B.C. and Nova Scotia.
Wilson, J. W. and Maureen Conn. "On Uprooting and Rerooting: Reflections on the Columbia River Project." B.C.
Studies, no. 58 (1983): 40-54.
See also Bradbury, J.H. under "Land Use Planning".
E. Regional Planning
Cullingworth (above, Section A) includes a number of comments on regional planning in B.C. In addition, see:
Dykeman, Floyd W. Three Approaches to Rural Planning: A Regional Government Perspective. Sackville, N.B.: Rural
and Small Town Research and Studies Programme, Department of Geography, Mount Allison University, 1986. About
integrated rural development in the Regional District of Central Kootenay.
Hayter, Roger and Tom Gunton. "British Columbia's Discovery Park Policy: A Regional Planning Prospective." In
Topics in Cartography and Physical and Human Geography: The Douglas College Papers, ed. Nigel M. Waters, 27-42.
B.C. Geographical Series, no. 40. Vancouver: Tantalus Research Ltd., 1984.
Hutton, Thomas A. and H. Craig Davis. "The Role of Office Location in Regional Multinucleation: The Case of
Vancouver." Canadian Journal of Regional Science 8 (Spring 1985): 17-34.
Vancouver (B.C.) Town Planning Commission. A Preliminary Report Upon Decentralization and Regional Planning.
Vancouver Town Planning Commission, Vancouver, British Columbia; Saint Louis, Mo.: Harland Bartholomew and
Wilson, James W. "Regional Planning in British Columbia." Community Planning Review 2 (Nov. 1952): 102-04.
Wilson, J. W. and G. W. Fitzpatrick. "Regional Development on the Columbia River Project." Plan Canada 7 (Sept.
See also: Lash, Harry, under "Participation and Development Issues," and section 13 on Metropolitan Government and
F. Planning in B.C. - Other Works
British Columbia. Department of Municipal Affairs. Technical Planning Committees: An Administrative Guide.
Victoria, March 1973.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. The Planning Act: A Discussion Paper. Victoria, 1980.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Development Services Branch. Comprehensive Development
Planning: The Kamloops Southeast Sector Plan. Prepared by Coriolis Consulting Corp., February 1987. Includes a general
discussion of comprehensive development planning, which is "an integrated approach to local government land use
planning, services planning, financial management and economic development," as well as giving information about
Crerar, A. D. "Population Density and Municipal Development - The Vancouver, B.C. Metropolitan Area." Canadian
Geographer 2, no. 9 (1957): 1-6.
Gallins, Myra Beck. "The Use of Newcomers' Experiences in the Urban Planning Process." M.A. thesis, University of
British Columbia, 1971.
Gibson, Edward M. The Urbanization of the Strait of Georgia Region: A Study of the Impact of Urbanization on the
Natural Resources of Southwestern British Columbia. Geographical Papers, no. 57. Ottawa: Lands Directorate,
Environment Canada, 1976.
Intermediate Settlements: Planning and Management Within a Spatial Strategy. A Contribution to the Discussion of
Agenda Item 5 ... for the Eighth Session of the United Nations Commission on Human Settlements in Kingston, Jamaica.
Vancouver: Centre for Human Settlements, University of British Columbia, 1985.
Ley, David. "Downtown or the Suburbs? A Comparative Study of Two Vancouver Head Offices." Canadian Geographer
29 (Spring 1985): 30-43.
Ley, David and Thomas Hutton. "Office Decentralization and Public Policy in a Post-Industrial City: The Case of Greater
Vancouver." In Regional Diversification and Structural Change: Proceedings of the Canada-United Kingdom Symposium
on Industrial Geography held at the University of Calgary, Canada, in August 1983, ed. Brenton M. Barr and Nigel M.
Waters, 138-52. B.C. Geographical Series, no. 39. Vancouver: Tantalus Research Ltd., 1984.
Quin, A. L. The Use of Ecological Information in Settlement Planning: A Case Example. Victoria: Ministry of Municipal
Affairs and Housing, 1979. About Tumbler Ridge.
Robinson, Ira M. "Planning for Small Communities in British Columbia." Community Planning Review 5 (March 1955):
Transactions of the British Columbia Natural Resources Conference. Annual. (1948-1970.) Often include material
relevant to planning.
Vischer, Jacqueline C. "The Changing Canadian Suburb." Plan Canada 27 (July 1987): 130-40. Uses data from Burnaby
to illustrate changing demographics and attitudes relevant to planning.
Walisser, Brian E. Fiscal Impact of Residential Growth: British Columbia; Methodology and Case Study. Victoria:
Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Research Branch, 1978.
Please send any comments or questions to Nicola.Marotz@gov.bc.ca
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