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A Bibliography on Local Government in
British Columbia - Continued
Services Provided By Municipal Government
Considering the importance of the subject,
there is not a great deal of empirical literature about the
provision of municipal government services in Canada. There are
historical accounts of the origins of local government services, of
increasing demands on local governments after 1880, the impact of
the Depression on the transfer of social responsibilities to the
other levels of government, and the increasing emphasis on
"quality of life" concerns since the 1960s. There are also
debates on privatization and over whether various services should be
provided at the regional level or the municipal level, and
ever-present calls for more funds for local governments. In the last
few years there also seems to have been more attention placed on the
possible role of municipal governments in the provision of social
services. However, empirical studies of what administrative
techniques individual municipalities use to provide services, and
comparative studies of the methods and costs of providing services
in different places are few and far between in the academic
literature. Equally striking is the lack of attention to the
problems of small towns and rural areas in providing high quality
and diverse services on a very limited tax base. The different
theoretical approaches towards local government are prominent in
what literature does exist about the provision of local services.
Mainstream and public choice theorists offer very different
perspectives on what is the most efficient way to provide services,
and how best to encourage responsiveness to public demands. Critics
from the left, meanwhile, focus attention on the extent to which the
services provided by local government serve the needs of property
developers, as opposed to neighbourhood residents.
Given the small amount of information available on most types of
services, general Canadian and B.C. references have been interfiled
in subcategories C to E below. For materials on social services, see
section 11, part A.
A. General Canadian Works
Bird, Richard M. and N. Enid Slack.
Urban Public Finance in Canada. Chapter 6. Toronto:
Butterworths, 1983. This chapter is on pricing urban services.
Bish, Robert L. "Improving Productivity in
the Government Sector: The Role of Contracting Out." In Responses
to Economic Change, ed. David Laidler. The
Collected Research Studies; The Royal Commission on the Economic
Union and Development Prospects for Canada, no. 27. Toronto:
University of Toronto Press, 1986. A few B.C. examples are used in
Bish, Robert L. and Vincent Ostrom.
Understanding Urban Government: Metropolitan Reform Reconsidered.
Washington, D. C.: The American Enterprise Institute for Public
Policy Research, 1973. This is an American work, but many of the
arguments can be applied in a Canadian context.
Downing, Paul B., ed. Local Service Pricing
Policies and Their Effect on Urban Spatial Structure.
Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, for the British
Columbia Institute for Economic Policy Analysis, 1976.
Ircha, Michael. "Local Government Services:
An Equity Perspective." Plan Canada 26 (May 1986):
Krause, Robert and Trevor Price.
"The Impact of Financial Restraint on the Provision of
Municipal Services in Canada." Planning and Administration
13 (Spring 1986): 58-63. Includes data from B.C.
McDavid, James C. "Privatizing Local
Government Services in Canada, " p. 101 -16, Discussion, p.
117-20. In Michael A. Walker, ed. Privatization:
Tactics and Techniques. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute,1988.
Includes some B.C. examples.
Sproule-Jones, Mark. "Institutions,
Constitutions, and Public Policy: A Public Choice Overview." Canadian
Public Policy, ed. Michael M. Atkinson and
Marsha A. Chandler, 127-50. Toronto: University of Toronto
Press, 1983. Uses several B.C. service examples in the course of
explaining the basics of public choice theory.
B. General Canadian Overview
Bish, Robert L. Local Government in British
Columbia. Chapters 6-9. Richmond, B.C.: Union of British
Columbia Municipalities in cooperation with the University of
Victoria School of Public Administration, 1987.
C. Cultural and Recreational Services
In addition to Bish, chapter 9, see:
British Columbia. New Approaches Task Force. British
Columbia's Public Libraries: A New Approach. The Final Report of the
New Approaches Ministerial Task Force on Public Libraries.
Victoria: British Columbia Ministry of Tourism, Recreation and
Culos, Ray. "The Library Trustee in British
Columbia." British Columbia Library Quarterly 36 (Oct.
1972 - Jan. 1973): 36-40.
Cummings, Don L. "A Successful Research to
Referendum Trail Revisited." Recreation Canada 44
(Oct. 1986): 6-8; 10-12. About the steps taken to research citizen
preferences before a referendum on recreational facilities was held
in the District of Coquitlam.
Davison, Robert L. "Half a Century: The
Commission Carries On." British Columbia Library Quarterly
33 (July-Oct. 1969): 3-10. Historical overview.
Dockendorf, Neil. "Sport Fields - Pay and
Play." Recreation Canada 45 (Feb. 1987): 13-16. About
the policy of the Burnaby Parks and Recreation Commission.
Dutton, Sue. The Effective Trustee Handbook.
Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1987.
Gilroy, Marion and Samuel Rothstein,
eds. As We Remember It: Interviews with Pioneering Librarians of
British Columbia. Vancouver: School of Librarianship,
University of British Columbia, 1970.
MacMillan, Alan. "A Trustee's Approach to
Responsibilities and Politics." British Columbia Library
Quarterly 36 (Oct. 72-Jan.73): 41-45.
McDonald, Robert A. J. "'Holy Retreat' or
'Practical Breathing Spot'?: Class Perceptions of Vancouver's
Stanley Park, 1910 -1913." Canadian Historical Review
65 (June 1984): 127-53.
McFarland, E. "The Beginning of Municipal
Park Systems." In Recreational Land Use: Perspectives on
Its Evolution in Canada, ed. Geoffrey Wall and
John S. Marsh, 257-71. Ottawa: Carleton University
Press, 1982. Includes some discussion of Vancouver.
McIvor, Christie and John Elvidge.
"Municipal Arts Policies - The Proof of the Policy Pudding is
in the Eating." Recreation Canada 46 (May 1988): 8-13,
16-21. Useful overview.
Recreation Canada 44 (Dec. 1986). Issue on
recreation and community development.
Stone, Douglas T. "White Rock, British
Columbia. A Community Programmed for Seniors." Recreation
Canada 43 (July 1985): 35-37.
Szilos, Agnes. "Entrepreneurship in
Municipal Recreation: One Department Approach." Recreation
Canada 45 (Feb. 1987): 26-28. About Oak Bay.
Williams, Lorraine M. The Library Trustee
and the Public Librarian: Partners in Service. Ottawa: Canadian
Library Association, 1987.
Woodland, Alan and Ellen Heaney,
eds. British Columbia Libraries: Historical Profiles.
Vancouver, B.C.: The British Columbia Library Association, 1986.
Includes information on many aspects of libraries in B.C., past and
Zuzanek, Jiri. "Municipal Support for the
Arts in Canada." Recreation Canada 46 (May 1988):
28-33. Includes some B.C. statistics.
D. Engineering-Type Services
In addition to Bish, chapter 8, see:
Ball, Norman R., senior editor. Building
Canada: A History of Public Works. Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1988. Sponsored by the Canadian Public Works
British Columbia. Ministry of Environment. Planning and
Assessment Branch. Waste Management Branch. The
Provincial Role in Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Discussion
Paper. Victoria, 1988.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs.
Maintenance Management of Municipal Operations - A Step by Step
Approach. Prepared by Aplin and Martin Engineering Ltd. For the
British Columbia Ministry of Municipal Affairs. Victoria, 1986.
British Columbia. Ministry of Municipal Affairs.
Residential Services and Site Planning Standards. Victoria,
Cain, Louis R. "Water and Sanitation
Services in Vancouver: An Historical Perspective." B.C.
Studies, no. 30 (1976): 27-43.
Federation of Canadian Municipalities. Canada's
Urban Infrastructure: Physical Condition and Funding Adequacy.
Prepared for the Federation of Canadian Municipalities Task Force on
Municipal Infrastructure by the Technical Committee on Canada's
Urban Infrastructure. June 1984.
Federation of Canadian Municipalities. Municipal
Infrastructure in Canada: Physical Condition and Funding Adequacy.
Municipal Dimensions, vol. 4, no. 1. Ottawa, 1985.
Goldberg, Michael A. "Municipal Arrogance
or Economic Rationality: The Case of High Servicing Standards." Canadian
Public Policy 6 (Winter 1980): 78-88. Uses data from the cities
of Vancouver and Richmond.
Kemp, Karen Kathleen. "Municipal Energy
Conservation Programs in B.C.: A Study of Innovation
Decisions." M.A. thesis, University of Victoria, 1982.
Kitchen, Harry M. "Some Organizational
Implications of Providing an Urban Service: The Case of Water."
Canadian Public Administration 18 (Summer 1975): 297-308.
Kolankiewicz, Leon. "Compliance with
Pollution Control Permits in the Lower Fraser Valley,
1967-1981." B.C. Studies, no. 72 (1986-87): 28-48.
Lambe, T. A. and C. D. Wild.
"Formulation and Implementation of a Pricing Policy for
Municipal Parking." Socio-Economic Planning Sciences
14 (1980): 25-32. A Victoria case study.
McDavid, James C. "The Canadian Experience
with Privatizing Residential Solid Waste Collection Services." Public
Administration Review 45 Sep.-Oct. 1985): 602-08.
McDavid, James. Residential Solid Waste
Collection Services in Canadian Municipalities. Victoria:
School of Public Administration, University of Victoria, 1983.
McDavid, James C. and Gregory K. Schick.
"Privatization vs. Union - Management Cooperation: The Effects
of Competition on Service Efficiency in Municipalities."
Canadian Public Administration 30 (Fall 1987): 472-88. Compares
residential solid waste collection arrangements in the West
Vancouver District and the North Vancouver District.
Parking Policy Study for Suburban Downtowns in Greater
Vancouver, B.C. Prepared for the GVRD by Hamilton and
Associates, Ltd. Vancouver: Hamilton and Associates, 1983.
Includes a framework for formulating municipal parking policy.
Proceedings of the First Canadian Conference on Urban
Infrastructure. Held February 5 and 6, 1987, Toronto,
Ontario. Produced by Sodanell Canada, Inc., Edmonton, Alberta.
Distributed by the Federation of Canadian Municipalities.
Sonnen, Carl and Mark Haney. The
Macroeconomic Impact of Accelerated Spending on Municipal
Infrastructure. Municipal Dimensions, vol. 4, no. 3. Occasional
Papers on Canadian Municipal Issues. Prepared for the FCM by
Informetrica, Ltd. Ottawa: Federation of Canadian Municipalities,
Sproule-Jones, Mark. The Real World of
Pollution Control. Vancouver: Westwater Research
Centre, University of British Columbia, 1980.
Sproule-Jones, Mark. "The Social
Appropriateness of Water Quality Management for the Lower Fraser
River." Canadian Public Administration 21 (Summer
Stephenson, James B., ed. The Practical
Application of Economic Incentives to the Control of Pollution: The
Case of British Columbia. Vancouver: Published for the British
Columbia Institute for Economic Policy Analysis by the University of
British Columbia Press, 1977.
Tickner, Glen and James C. McDavid.
"Effects of Scale and Market Structure on the Costs of
Residential Solid Waste Collection in Canadian Cities." Public
Finance Quarterly 14 (Oct. 1986): 371-93.
Union of British Columbia Municipalities. B.C.'s
Urban Infrastructure: An Extension of the National Federation of
Canadian Municipalities' Survey and Analysis of Urban
Infrastructure, 1984. Richmond, B.C., 1985.
E. Protective Services
In addition to Bish, Chapter 7, see:
Keenleyside, Hugh. The Fire Fighting
Services in British Columbia: Report to the Attorney-General.
McDavid, James C. "Part-time Fire Fighters
in Canadian Municipalities: Cost and Effectiveness
Comparisons." Canadian Public Administration 29 (Fall
Task Force on Municipal Policing Costs in British
Columbia. Task Force on Municipal Policing Costs: Final
Recommendations. 1983. Copy in the Ministry of Municipal
Affairs, Recreation, and Culture Local Government Research Library,
Task Force on Municipal Policing Costs in British
Columbia. Task Force on Municipal Policing Costs in
British Columbia: Preliminary Report for Discussion Purposes.
Victoria, 1978. Co-ordinator: Patricia D. Ross.
Todor, William D. A Survey of Municipal
Police Management in British Columbia. Vancouver: B.C. Police
Union of British Columbia Municipalities. Report
on Municipal Policing Costs to the 1984 Convention of the Union of
British Columbia Municipalities. Submitted by the Executive of
the UBCM, Sept. 1984.
Please send any comments or questions to Nicola.Marotz@gov.bc.ca
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